My Book on Mineral Admixtures


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Motivation: This book has been written with a view to contribute towards the sustainable growth of cement and construction industry as well as to build strong and durable structures, encouraging the application of mineral admixtures, primarily industrial and agricultural wastes, in cement and concrete, appraising the engineers in construction practice about the benefits of these materials in terms of strength and durability.

Unique: Presents the materials, hydration, strength and durability aspects of mineral admixtures, at one place and as relevant for the engineers in construction practice, for better appreciation and application of these materials in cement and concrete

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Contents: The book is written keeping in view the requirement of the engineers in construction practice, primarily the strength and durability of structures and also of those engaged in manufacturing cement and concrete. It should also serve as a reference book for the engineering courses on the subject, both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. As the book is written for engineers in construction practice, the physical, mineralogical and chemical characteristics as well as the references to complex issues on microstructure or chemistry have been presented to an extent that help give better understanding of the application of mineral admixtures.

The mineral admixtures covered, chapter-wise, under the scope of this book are pulverised fuel ash (PFA), blast furnace slag (BFS), silica fume (SF), rice husk ash (RHA), metakaolin (MK) and some new ones currently under investigation. The Chapters mainly cover the aspects related to the manufacturing and processing, physical characteristics, chemical and mineralogical composition, quality control of the mineral admixture and the reported experiences as well as the provisions of national Standards on its addition to cement and concrete. The Chapter on Hydration, besides presenting the practically relevant aspects of chemistry, covers the impact of the addition of mineral admixtures. The Chapter on Strength and Durability presents mechanisms, models, standards and mitigation of concrete deterioration due to carbonation, alkali-aggregate reactions, chloride attack and corrosion of reinforcement, external as well as internal sulphate attack, decalcification and freeze-thaw action. The understanding of the materials aspects of the mineral admixtures and their impact on the hydration, strength and durability of concrete will make a positive contribution, encouraging greater and more fruitful utilisation of these and even other wastes in cement and concrete and lead to the sustainable growth of both cement and construction industry on the one hand and the waste producing industries as well, on the other.

Special Featutes:

  • Presents the materials, hydration, strength and durability aspects of cement and concrete with mineral admixtures, at one place and as relevant for the engineers in construction practice
  • Includes relevant manufacturing and processing aspects related to the mineral admixtures.
  • Takes a review of the available experience, quality control and the provisions of national Standards on the addition of mineral admixtures in cement and concrete.
  • Deals with the toxicity and occupational health aspects, where relevant.
  • The Chapter on Hydration, besides presenting the practically relevant aspects of chemistry, such as hydration periods, variation in fresh concrete properties, heat generation, covers the impact of the addition of mineral admixtures.
  • The Chapter on Strength and Durability, summarises current prescriptive and performance-based approaches to structural design and presents mechanisms, models, standards and mitigation of concrete deterioration by different modes.
  • Introduces new and promising mineral admixtures, currently under development
Chapter-Wise Contents:
  • Chapter 1. Pulverized Fuel Ash. 1.1 Introduction. 1.2 Classification. 1.3 Physical Characteristics: 1.3.1 Particle Shape, 1.3.2 Particle Specific Gravity, 1.3.3 Particle Size and Fineness, 1.3.4 Color, 1.3.5 Unburned Carbon. 1.4 Chemical and Mineralogical Composition. 1.5 Characteristics of PFA Produced in Fluidized Bed Combustion Process. 1.6 Characteristics of PFA Produced after Co-Combustion of Bituminous Coal and Petcoke. 1.7 Leaching Characteristics. 1.8 Radioactivity, Toxicity, and Occupational Health. 1.9 Processing for Quality Improvement and Assurance: 1.9.1 Collection, 1.9.2 Physical Treatment, 1.9.3 Ultrafine PFA, 1.9.4 Chemical Activation. 1.10 Processing of Unusable PFA: 1.10.1 Principal Barriers in PFA Utilization, 1.10.2 Processing of PFA with High Unburned Carbon, 1.10.2.1 Physical Separation, 1.10.2.2 Combustion. 1.11 Quality Control. 1.12 Addition of PFA to Cement and Concrete. 1.13 Summary
  • Chapter 2. Blast Furnace Slag. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Granulation of BFS: 2.2.1 Granulation Process, 2.2.2 Physical Characteristics of Granulated BFS. 2.3 Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag: 2.3.1 Moisture Reduction and Grinding, 2.3.2 Particle Size and Size Distribution. 2.4 Chemical and Mineralogical Composition of Cementitious BFS. 2.5 Quality Control. 2.6 Addition of BFS and GGBS to Cement and Concrete. 2.7 Quantitative Determination of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement. 2.8 Summary
  • Chapter 3. Silica Fume. 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Types of Silica Fume. 3.3 Physical Characteristics: 3.3.1 Particle Size and Size Distribution, 3.3.2 Specific Gravity and Bulk Density, 3.3.3 Specific Surface. 3.4 Chemical and Mineralogical Composition. 3.5 Toxicity and Occupational Health. 3.6 Quality Control. 3.7 Addition of SF to Cement and Concrete. 3.8 Summary.
  • Chapter 4. Rice Husk Ash. 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Relevance of RHA for the Sustainability of Construction Industry. 4.3 Rice Husk. 4.4 Production: 4.4.1 Characteristics of RH Combustion, 4.4.2 Modern Methods to Produce Pozzolanic RHA, 4.4.2.1 Fluidized Bed Process for Large-Scale Production of Rice Husk Ash, 4.4.2.2 Annular Oven Process for Small-Scale Production of Rice Husk Ash, 4.5 Physical and Chemical Characteristics. 4.6 Addition of RHA to Cement and Concrete. 4.7 Summary.
  • Chapter 5. Metakaolin. 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Production: 5.2.1 Thermal Activation of Kaolin, 5.2.2 Mechanical Activation of Kaolin, 5.2.3 Calcination of Waste Paper Sludge. 5.3 Physical and Chemical Characteristics. 5.4 Quality Control. 5.5 Addition of Metakaolin to Cement and Concrete. 5.6 Summary.
  • Chapter 6. Hydration. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Progress of Hydration with Time (Hydration Periods): 6.2.1 Workability Period, 6.2.2 Setting Period or Stage III: Active Reaction Period, 6.2.3 Hardening Period. 6.3 Reactants in Hydration Process: 6.3.1 Reactive Compounds in Cement Clinker: 6.3.1.1 Tricalciumsilicate, 6.3.1.2 Dicalciumsilicate, 6.3.1.3 Tricalciumaluminate, 6.3.1.4 Tetracalciumaluminoferrite, 6.3.2 Calcium Sulfate (Gypsum), 6.3.3 Reactive Compounds in Mineral Admixtures, 6.3.4 Calcium Hydroxide. 6.4 Voids in Hydrated Cement Paste. 6.5 Interrelation of the Hydration Properties of Cement and Concrete. 6.6 Properties of Concrete during Early Stages of Hydration: 6.6.1 Workability, 6.6.2 Yield Stress and Viscosity, 6.6.3 Bleeding and Laitance, 6.6.4 Setting Time, 6.6.5 Concrete Temperature, 6.6.6 Volume Changes. 6.7 Hydration Reactions and Changes in Early-Age Concrete Properties: 6.7.1 Hydration Reactions of Cementitious Materials other than Portland Cement, 6.7.2 Hydration Reactions of Portland Cement: 6.7.2.1 C-S-H: The Principal Reaction Product and the Strength-Giving Phase, 6.7.2.2 Major Reactions Occurring in the Workability Period, 6.7.2.3 Major Reactions Occurring in the Setting Period, 6.7.2.4 Major Reactions Occurring in the Hardening Period, 6.7.2.5 Hydration of Alite (C3S) and Belite (C2S) Compared, 6.7.3 Hydration Reactions of Cement with Mineral Admixtures: 6.7.3.1 Hydration of Cement with Pulverized Fuel Ash, 6.7.3.2 Hydration of Cement with Blast Furnace Slag, 6.7.3.3 Hydration of Cement with Silica Fume, 6.7.3.4 Hydration of Cement with Rice Husk Ash, 6.7.3.5 Hydration of Cement with Metakaolin. 6.8 Summary.
  • Chapter 7. Strength and Durability. 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Designing Structures for Strength and Durability: 7.2.1 Prescriptive Approach, 7.2.2 Performance-Based Approach. 7.3 Concrete Strength: 7.3.1 Interfacial Transition Zone, 7.3.2 High-Performance Concrete, 7.3.3 Importance of Concrete Curing. 7.4 Mechanisms, Models, Standards, and Mitigation of Concrete Deterioration: 7.4.1 Carbonation: 7.4.1.1 Mechanism of Carbonation, 7.4.1.2 Mathematical Models for Carbonation, 7.4.1.3 National Standards and Guidelines on Carbonation, 7.4.1.4 Mitigation of Carbonation. 7.4.2 Alkali–Aggregate Reactions: 7.4.2.1 Mechanisms of AAR, 7.4.2.2 Mathematical Models for AAR, 7.4.2.3 National Standards and Guidelines on AAR, 7.4.2.4 Mitigation and Management of AAR. 7.4.3 Chloride Attack and Corrosion of Reinforcement: 7.4.3.1 Mechanism of Chloride Corrosion, 7.4.3.2 Mathematical Models for Chloride Attack, 7.4.3.3 National Standards and Guidelines on Chloride Corrosion, 7.4.3.4 Mitigation of Chloride Corrosion. 7.4.4 External Sulfate Attack: 7.4.4.1 Mechanisms of External Sulfate Attack, 7.4.4.2 Mathematical Models for External Sulfate Attack, 7.4.4.3 National Standards and Guidelines on External Sulfate Attack, 7.4.4.4 Mitigation of External Sulfate Attack. 7.4.5 Internal Sulfate Attack or Delayed Ettringite Formation. 7.4.6 Decalcification or Leaching. 7.4.7 Frost or Freeze–Thaw Action. 7.5 Performance Based Design of Structures Using Durability Indices. 7.6 Sustainable Cement and Concrete. 7.7 Summary.
  • Chapter 8. New Mineral Admixtures. 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Biomass Combustion Ash: 8.2.1 Corn Cob Ash, 8.2.2 Palm Oil Residue Ash, 8.2.3 Sugarcane Bagasse Ash, 8.2.4 Wheat Straw Ash, 8.2.5 Wood Waste Ash. 8.3 Calcined Wastepaper Sludge. 8.4 Electric-Arc Furnace Dust. 8.5 Sewage Sludge Ash. 8.6 Municipal Solid Waste Ash. 8.7 Summary. 
  • References. 
  • Index.

The readers are welcome to send feedback or ask any specific question related to mineral admixtures in cement and concrete (see side bar)

Dr J D Bapat is available for tele-consulting. Send your feedback


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Dr J D Bapat,
Apr 4, 2013, 7:08 PM
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